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Our cornerstones in thorium MSR development


Molten salt loops

Crucial technologies for developing MSRs require testing with flowing molten salts. Therefore, Copenhagen Atomics is designing and building molten salt loops in-house. The loops allow testing and validation of the designs and technologies being pursued by Copenhagen Atomics, such as LIBS salt composition measurements, nozzle spraying for online removal of fission products, and heavy water moderated cores. Likewise, the loops are sought for the same purpose of testing and validation by our partners, collaborators and customers in the MSR field working on their own projects.

Our most recent loop is fitted with pump and valves, designed, built, and tested in-house. The loop is designed to handle temperatures up to 800 degrees Celsius and has been tested with FLiNaK salt. The loop offers a unique value proposition for MSR research and development.


Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

Copenhagen Atomics is developing a LIBS interface for measuring flowing molten salt, enabling real-time updates of the isotopic composition of the salt with ppm precision.

LIBS is considered a non-destructive technique - less than one billionth of a gram of material is affected during a typical measurement. Laser pulses generate a high temperature micro-plasma at the lasers focal point. After this excitation, light that is characteristic of the isotopic composition of the material is emitted and analyzed within the spectrometer.

The laser is very powerful and is focused to a microscopic point on the sample and causes virtually no sample heating around the tiny test area. No sample preparation is needed before the measurement can be executed. Furthermore, the method does not require direct physical contact with the sample making it a true remote sensing technique.


Extraction of fission products

Vacuum spraying, developed by Copenhagen Atomics, is an advancement of the traditional helium bubbling method, which allows for a much larger fraction of the fission products to be extracted from the fuel salt than what is possible with helium bubbling. Both methods rely on evaporation of noble gases and boiling of volatile fission product compounds for the extraction of fission products.

While far from all fission products are noble gasses or volatile at the operating temperature and pressure of the primary salt in molten salt reactors, a majority of the fission products decay through multiple elements, which are. Thus, most fission products can technically be extracted through short lived intermediate states along their decay chain.

The enhanced fission product extraction of vacuum spraying is achieved by increasing the surface to volume ratio and hence increasing the evaporation rate of noble gasses and volatile compounds, and decreasing the ambient pressure to a fraction of atmospheric pressure hereby increasing the volatility the majority of the fission products. It's this combination of spraying tiny droplets into a low pressure region, promptly upon leaving the reactor core, that allows for vacuum spraying technology to theoretically extract up to half of the fission products without the need for any online wet chemical reprocessing.